Scientists and students in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences (AOES) are working to better understand our planet in myriad ways, from improving numerical model predictions of next year’s atmospheric temperature to explaining geological strata laid down in previous eras, from monitoring water transport through the atmosphere to modeling water movement at the bottom of the ocean.

AOES is home to active research programs and to a doctoral program in Climate Dynamics, a master’s degree in Earth Systems Science, undergraduate degrees in Atmospheric Science, Earth Science, and Geology, and undergraduate minors in Atmospheric Science, Earth Science, Ocean and Estuarine Science, and Paleontology. The department has close ties to the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA).

Department Faculty

Professors

DelSole, Dirmeyer, Hazen (Robinson Professor), Hinnov, Huang, Kinter, Schneider (chair), J. Shukla, Straus

Associate Professors

Boybeyi, Chiu, Klinger, McBride, Stan, Uhen (associate chair)

Assistant Professors

Burls, Pegion

Term Professors

Nord, Verardo

Term Associate Professors

Anders

Term Assistant Professors

Hutsky, Kysar-Mattietti

Research Faculty

Adams, Altschuler, Bombardi, Borah, Buckley, Cash, Chen, Doty, Erfani, Fennessy, Guo, Hao, Jenkins, Krishnamurthy, Manganello, Marx, Paolino, Selman, Shin, R. Shukla, Swenson, Trenary

Affiliate Faculty

Houser, Light, Lukes, Summers

Emeriti

Diecchio, Schopf

Climate Dynamics (CLIM)

100 Level Courses

CLIM 101: Global Warming: Weather, Climate, and Society. 3 credits.
Survey of the scientific and societal issues associated with weather and climate variability and change. Examines physical phenomena observed in the Earth's weather and climate, providing sufficient scientific and technical background to enable students to critically examine arguments being discussed by policymakers and the public at large. Also reviews the current debate on climate change from a scientific point of view with a focus on those aspects that have the largest potential impact on global society. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 102: Introduction to Global Climate Change Science. 4 credits.
The scientific basis of computer models that simulate past and present climate and predict future climate change; How complex models are built, tested, and interpreted to better understand physical, chemical, and biological processes; how uncertainty is managed. Students conduct laboratory experiments through an online interface and apply results to policy and planning. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Notes: Computer models are used in the lab. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: Basic math skills (Geometry, Algebra).
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
CLIM 111: Introduction to the Fundamentals of Atmospheric Science. 3 credits.
Overview of the Earth's atmosphere, its history, and the physical and chemical process that determine its characteristics. Focuses on key concepts from thermodynamics, radiation, chemistry, and dynamics that are essential for understanding the state, variability, and long term evolution of the atmosphere; especially in the context of comparisons with other planetary atmospheres. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to PHYS 111.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 112: Introduction to the Fundamentals of Atmospheric Science Lab. 1 credit.
Laboratory course associated with CLIM 111. Study of the Earth's atmosphere based on concepts taken from thermodynamics, radiation transport, chemistry, and dynamics. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to PHYS 112.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Schedule Type: Laboratory

300 Level Courses

CLIM 301: Weather Analysis and Prediction. 4 credits.
Large-scale behavior of mid-latitude weather systems. Includes coupling of synoptic motion to mesoscale processes that lead to significant weather events. Introduces the observational network, numerical weather models, and prediction. Laboratory portion gives practical experience in weather analysis, prediction, and technology currently used for visualization and analysis. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 113 or equivalent; one of CLIM/PHYS 111/112 or EOS 121 or GGS 121.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
CLIM 312: Physical Climatology. 3 credits.
Quantitative description of nature and theory of the climate system, dynamics of atmosphere-ocean-land surface, internal interactions and response to external forcing, description of the climate record and simple climate models. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to GGS 312.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM/PHYS 111/112 OR GGS 121; and PHYS 243,244, or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 314: Severe and Extreme Weather. 3 credits.
Behavior of weather events ranging from small scale (e.g., thunderstorms and tornadoes) to mesoscale (e.g., fronts and hurricanes). Introduces the dynamical and physical processes, atmospheric boundary layer processes, and coupling between different spatial scales that create and shape severe and localized weather events. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to GGS 314.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 113 or equivalent; CLIM/PHYS 111/112 or EOS 121 or GGS 121.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 319: Air Pollution. 3 credits.
Description of major types of air pollution and introduction to how their characteristics are influenced by interaction with the atmosphere. Topics include sources and distribution of pollution from local to global scales, effects of radiation and wind on pollution, modeling of plume dispersion, and pollution effects on climate. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 111 or GGS 121.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 390: Topics in Climate Research. 1-4 credits.
Selected topics not covered in fixed content courses. May be included for credit by AOES majors in the 45 credits of courses required for BS degree. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 6 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: 15 credits of AOES courses within concentration.
Schedule Type: Independent Study

400 Level Courses

CLIM 408: Senior Research. 3 credits.
Independent research under guidance of faculty member on a research project in numerical, experimental, observational, or theoretical atmospheric or climate-related research. A written report on the project is required. Notes: May be repeated with department permission. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 6 credits.
Specialized Designation: Writing Intensive in the Major
Recommended Prerequisite: 15 credits of AOES courses within major.
Schedule Type: Research
CLIM 409: Research Internship. 3 credits.
On-the-job experience for AOES majors in industry or government laboratories, including summer research programs. Students work in observational, experimental, or theoretical research, and prepare a written report at the end of the internship. Notes: May be repeated with department permission. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 6 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: 75 credits. 15 credits of courses in major and permission of department.
Schedule Type: Independent Study
CLIM 411: Atmospheric Dynamics. 3 credits.
Observational bases and fundamentals of fluid dynamic principle for understanding atmospheric motions across multiple spatial and temporal scales; covers basic conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy; concepts of circulation and vorticity; balanced atmospheric flows, e.g. geostrophic wind and shear, thermal wind; quasi-geostrophic and isentropic potential vorticity analysis for mid-latitude cyclones and fronts. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to CLIM 311.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 111 and MATH 213, or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 412: Physical Oceanography. 3 credits.
Reviews global patterns of temperature, salinity, currents and waves in the world's oceans and how these patterns influence marine biota, climate, and human activity. Introduces key concepts which explain physical features of the ocean ranging from microscopic turbulence to global circulation. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to GEOL 412.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 113 or 115 and PHYS 160 or 253; or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 429: Atmospheric Thermodynamics. 3 credits.
Thermodynamics of the atmosphere, properties of dry and moist air, air parcel as a thermodynamic system, atmospheric stability and convection, cloud formation and stability indices. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 111, MATH 114 and PHYS 260; or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 438: Atmospheric Chemistry. 3 credits.
Reviews fundamental chemical processes of the Earth's atmosphere including chemical cycles, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, photochemistry, radiative balance, ozone chemistry and environmental issues, including air pollution, acid rain and global change. Includes some review of extraterrestrial atmospheric chemistry. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to CHEM 438.
Recommended Prerequisite: CHEM 331 and 332 or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 440: Climate Dynamics. 3 credits.
Structure, dynamics and thermodynamics of atmospheric and oceanic circulations that maintain the climate. Role of the large scale transport of energy, moisture and angular momentum. Relationships of large scale circulation to weather and weather extremes, and implications for past and future climates. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 213, MATH 214, and CLIM 411.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 456: Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation. 3 credits.
Provides fundamentals, physical understanding and quantitative analysis of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, discusses radiation processes- reflection, refraction, absorption, transmission, emission, and scattering and introduces tools for atmospheric radiative transfer. Provide students the basics for more advanced topics such as remote sensing or satellite meteorology. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to GGS 456.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 111, MATH 114, and PHYS 260 or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 470: Numerical Weather Prediction. 3 credits.
Concepts and techniques of numerical prediction of weather, including the numerical models used and the rationale for large suites of meteorological forecasts. Sources of errors in the forecast: errors in the initial conditions and in the numerical weather prediction models. Interpretation of model output. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 213, MATH 214, and CLIM 411.
Schedule Type: Lecture

500 Level Courses

CLIM 512: Physical Oceanography. 3 credits.
Course describes the global patterns of temperature, salinity, currents and waves in the world's oceans, and how these patterns influence marine biota, climate, and human activity. Course introduces key concepts which explain physical feature of the ocean ranging from microscopic turbulence to global circulation. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 113 or MATH 115; PHYS 160 or PHYS 243; or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture

600 Level Courses

CLIM 690: Scientific Basis of Climate Change. 3 credits.
A rigorous treatment of global warming, especially with regard to anthropogenic causes, based on the IPCC 4th Assessment Report "The Physical Science Basis". Topics include 1) Overview of observed climate, 2) Variability of climate, 3) Modeling of climate response to greenhouse gas forcing, 4) Greenhouse gases, chemistry, and aerosols, and 5) Projections of climate change and its societal impact. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: BS or MS in a natural science or engineering, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture

700 Level Courses

CLIM 700: Climate Comprehensive Exam. 1 credit.
Preparation for and completion of written comprehensive exam, on a climate-related subject, within AOES department. The exam is part of the degree requirements in lieu of writing a master's thesis. Instructor should be the chair of the examination committee. The exam committee will specify exam content. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 2 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: At least 15 graduate credits, approved project proposal, and permission of major advisor or chair of the examination committee.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Independent Study
CLIM 710: Introduction to Physical Climate System. 3 credits.
Provides modern understanding of ocean, atmosphere, and land based on fundamental physical laws. Describes current climate and physical processes by which climate is maintained. Covers theoretical models of general circulation of atmosphere, including time mean and transient behavior. Describes basics of ocean circulation and interactions between ocean and atmosphere. Reviews past climate change, stratosphere and its interactions with troposphere, and role of land processes in modulating climate. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: BS or MS in mathematics or a physical science, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 711: Introduction to Atmospheric Dynamics. 3 credits.
Covers basic conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy and scaling analysis of equation of motion and thermodynamic equation. Discusses balanced flows in atmosphere, such as geostrophic wind and its vertical shear, and thermal wind relationship. Also explores circulation and vorticity; role of atmospheric boundary layer in mass, momentum, and energy transfer; synoptic scale motions; and role of gravity and Rossby waves in controlling general circulation of atmosphere. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to PHYS 676.
Recommended Prerequisite: BS or MS in mathematics or a physical science, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 712: Physical and Dynamical Oceanography. 3 credits.
Introduces climatology and dynamics of oceans. Covers nature of seawater, heat, and salt budgets; general circulation of the ocean, including the Gulf Stream and thermohaline circulations; dynamics of wind-driven ocean circulation; and processes influencing biological and chemical behavior. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CSI 751 or CLIM 710, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 713: Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions. 3 credits.
Provides comprehensive observational and mechanistic understanding of El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. Topics include observations and theories of seasonal and interannual changes in ocean circulation and temperature and interactions with atmosphere; equations of motion and theories of wind-driven circulation; mixed layer observations and theories; midlatitude and equatorial ocean waves; interannual variability and atmosphere-ocean coupling; and tropical oceanography and meteorology. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 712 or 711 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 714: Land-Climate Interactions. 3 credits.
Interdisciplinary course providing detailed description of surface energy and water balance over land and radiative and turbulent transfer. Introduces numerical techniques for modeling land surface and applications in weather, climate, and hydrologic forecasting and simulation. Includes hands-on experience with land surface models in computer laboratory, including sensitivity experiments to reinforce theoretical concepts. Exposure to contemporary research through reading and reviewing seminal journal papers. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: BS or MS in mathematics or physical science, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 715: Numerical Methods for Climate Modeling. 3 credits.
Foundation and theory of computational methods for atmosphere and ocean modeling, with special emphasis on finite-difference and spectral methods. Topics include accuracy, consistency, convergence and stability; time stepping schemes; nonlinear computational stability; energy and enstrophy conserving schemes for momentum equations; staggered and curvilinear grids; alternate vertical coordinate systems; implicit and split-explicit barotropic mode solution; pressure gradient errors and vorticity constraints; spectral methods for atmospheric models; and treatment of model physics. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 712 or 711 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 750: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. 3 credits.
Introduces geophysical fluid dynamics, the study of rotating stratified flows. Covers hydrostatics; equations of motion, gravity wave dynamics, and stratified flow; effects of rotation, midlatitude dynamics, Rossby number and quasigeostrophic expansion; beta plane approximation; and equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 711, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 751: Predictability and Prediction of Weather and Climate. 3 credits.
Covers predictability and seamless prediction of weather and climate for timescales ranging from days to decades. Studies limitations to predictability due to chaos, and possible sources of predictability due to slowly varying surface boundary conditions produced by interactions among atmospheres, ocean and land system. Discusses predictability of droughts and floods, monsoons, ENSO, decadal variations and climate change. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Registration Restrictions:

Required Prerequisite: CLIM 711B-.
B- Requires minimum grade of B-.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 752: Ocean General Circulation. 3 credits.
Description and theory of large-scale ocean circulation and how it affects climate. Focus is on ubiquitous flow structures such as gyres, equatorial currents, and meridional overturning cells. Examines how the circulation follows from wind and thermohaline forcing, as well as physical principles. The influence of the circulation on heat transport and climate variability is also discussed. Conceptual guideposts include barotropic gyres, Ekman cells, potential vorticity, western intensification, the interplay of gravity and the Earth's rotation, advective-diffusive balance, multiple flow states, and Rossby waves. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 712 or 711 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 753: General Circulation of the Atmosphere. 3 credits.
Overview and several theoretical perspectives of atmospheric transport of energy, moisture, and angular momentum, and how these processes fundamentally affect the climate on various time scales. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 710 and CLIM 711.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 754: Elements of the Tropical Climate System. 3 credits.
Observations and dynamics of key processes of tropical weather and climate. Topics include: structure of the tropical atmosphere and ocean, convection, dynamics of tropical waves in the atmosphere and ocean, tropical intraseasonal variability, tropical the global monsoons, cyclones, and stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 711.
Recommended Corequisite: CLIM 710.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 759: Topics in Climate Dynamics. 3 credits.
Covers selected topics in climate dynamics not covered in fixed-content courses. Notes: May be repeated for credit when offered with different content. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the term for a maximum 9 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 762: Statistical Methods in Climate Research. 3 credits.
Introduction to a core set of statistical methods that have proven useful to modern climate and predictability research. Topics include detecting and attributing climate change, describing climate variability with empirical orthogonal functions, statistical forecasting with regression and time series models, and identifying coupled patterns of variability with canonical correlation analysis. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: Undergraduate level linear algebra and STAT 344 (or equivalent), or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 763: Advanced Statistical Methods in Climate Research. 3 credits.
Introduction to multivariate statistical techniques commonly used in climate science, with special emphasis on estimation in large dimensional spaces. Topics include: multivariate regression, canonical correlation analysis, predictable component analysis, field significance tests, data assimilation (especially the ensemble Kalman Filter), discriminant analysis, and multivariate detection and attribution of climate change. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: CLIM 762 or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
CLIM 796: Directed Reading and Research. 1-6 credits.
Reading and research on a specific topic in climate dynamics under the direction of a faculty member. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the term for a maximum 6 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: Admission into the climate dynamics doctoral program and permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Research
CLIM 798: Master's Climate Research Project. 1-6 credits.
Research or literature-review project in climate science or related topic chosen and completed under the guidance of a faculty member. Proposal required before enrollment. Technical report acceptable to student's project committee required for completion. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 12 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: At least 15 graduate credits, approved project proposal, and permission of major advisor or chair of the examination committee.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Thesis
CLIM 799: Master's Thesis in Climate. 1-6 credits.
Research project in climate science or related topic chosen and completed under the supervision of a faculty member. Resulting thesis acceptable to student's committee and potentially publishable is required for completion. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 18 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: Degree candidacy, thesis proposal approved by thesis committee, and permission of major advisor or instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Thesis

900 Level Courses

CLIM 991: Climate Dynamics Seminar. 1 credit.
Presentations in climate dynamics field by Mason faculty and invited speakers. Notes: A maximum of 3 credits may be applied toward the climate dynamics PhD. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Schedule Type: Seminar
CLIM 996: Doctoral Reading and Research. 1-6 credits.
Reading and research on a specific topic in climate dynamics under the direction of a faculty member. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the term for a maximum 6 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: Admission into the climate dynamics doctoral program and permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Schedule Type: Research
CLIM 998: Doctoral Dissertation Proposal. 1-12 credits.
Covers development of research proposal under guidance of dissertation director and doctoral committee. Proposal forms basis for climate dynamics doctoral dissertation. Notes: Course may be repeated, but no more than 12 credits of CLIM 998 may be applied to doctoral degree requirements. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree.
Recommended Prerequisite: Doctoral standing and permission of advisor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Schedule Type: Dissertation
CLIM 999: Doctoral Dissertation. 1-12 credits.
Doctoral dissertation research under direction of dissertation director. Notes: May be repeated, but no more than 24 credits total in CLIM 998 and 999 may be applied to doctoral degree requirements. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree.
Recommended Prerequisite: Admission to doctoral candidacy and permission of advisor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Schedule Type: Dissertation

Geology (GEOL)

100 Level Courses

GEOL 101: Introductory Geology I. 4 credits.
Covers Earth, processes that operate within Earth and on surface, and human interaction with Earth. Topics include minerals, earthquakes and seismology, isostasy, igneous processes and rocks, paleomagnetism and plate tectonics, weathering, mass movements, rivers and streams, groundwater, glaciers, and marine processes. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 102: Introductory Geology II. 4 credits.
Earth processes in historical context. Topics include sedimentary rocks and principles, deformation and metamorphism, mountain building and plate tectonics, geologic time, fossils, and historical development of continents. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 134: Evolution and Extinction. 3 credits.
Evolution and Extinction is a science class for non-science majors that explores how diversity of animals and plants has changed through geologic time, when mass extinctions occurred, when major diversifications of life occurred, and how the position of continents on the surface of the earth influenced the evolution, extinction, and distribution of life, landforms and the atmosphere. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Schedule Type: Lecture

200 Level Courses

GEOL 206: Topics in Geology I. 1-3 credits.
Discusses particular topic in geology. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the term for a maximum 6 credits.
Schedule Type: Lecture

300 Level Courses

GEOL 302: Mineralogy. 4 credits.
Crystallographic, optical, chemical, and physical properties of minerals. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Discovery of Scholarship
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 and 102 with a grade of 2.0 or better and CHEM 211.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 303: Field Mapping Techniques. 3 credits.
Basic techniques for collecting, recording, and plotting spatial field data including use of topographic maps, compasses, transit, alidade, and global positioning systems (GPS). Designated a Green Leaf Course. Notes: Includes field work. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course, Scholarly Inquiry
Recommended Prerequisite: 30 credits including MATH 105 or equivalent and GGS 102 or GEOL 102.
Schedule Type: Laboratory
GEOL 304: Sedimentary Geology. 4 credits.
Introduces sedimentation, sedimentary petrology, facies analysis, and stratigraphy. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101, 102, and a grade of C or better in GEOL 302.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 305: Environmental Geology. 3 credits.
Investigates geological principles directly relating to environmental hazards. Geological causes and effects of natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, floods and landslides; climate variability and change; prediction of, and planning for geological hazards and disasters and understanding their major societal impacts; and medical geology. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course, Writing Intensive in the Major
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 and one of the following: GEOL 102, GEOL/BIOL 309, GGS 309.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 306: Soil Science. 3 credits.
Composition, classification, physical properties, and origin of soils. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course, Scholarly Inquiry
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 and CHEM 103 or 211.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 308: Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. 4 credits.
Genesis, classification, and recognition of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101, 102, a grade of C or better in GEOL 302, and MATH 105 or equivalent.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 309: Introduction to Oceanography. 3 credits.
Introduces physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of oceanic environment. Notes: May include field trip. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to BIOL 309, EVPP 309.
Recommended Prerequisite: Two of the following lab sciences courses are required for a total of 8 credits: [GEOL 101 or 102], [EVPP 110 or 111 or 210], CHEM 211, [BIOL 103 or 213], [PHYS 160 and 161 or 243 and 244].
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 312: Invertebrate Paleontology. 4 credits.
Classification, evolutionary trends, and distribution of common invertebrate fossils. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to BIOL 336.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 and GEOL 102, or BIOL 103, 104, or BIOL 213, 303, 304.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 313: Hydrogeology. 3 credits.
Geological and hydrologic factors controlling occurrence, distribution, movement, quality, and development of groundwater. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 or GGS 102, MATH 113 and CHEM 211.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 315: Topics in Geology II. 1-3 credits.
Discusses particular topic in geology. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the term for a maximum 12 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 or GEOL 102 or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 316: Computers in Geology. 3 credits.
Uses of mainframe and microcomputers, with emphasis on geologic applications. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101, 102, 302, one semester of mathematics, or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 317: Geomorphology. 4 credits.
Analyzes processes that occur at Earth's surface and resulting landforms. Labs stress recognition and evaluation of landforms using maps and aerial photographs, and methods of data collection used in study of surficial geology. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Writing Intensive in the Major
Recommended Prerequisite: Grade of 2.0 or better in GEOL 101 and 102, or 6 credits of GGS, including GGS 102; GGS 412 is strongly recommended.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 320: Geology of Earth Resources. 3 credits.
A survey of earth resources, including metallic and non-metallic ore deposits, mineral resources, precious gems, sand and gravel, water, and air. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101, GEOL 102, GEOL 302. GEOL 305 strongly suggested.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 321: Geology of Energy Resources. 3 credits.
A survey of energy resources, including fossil fuels, renewable, nuclear and unconventional sources. Emphasis on origin, use and implications of development. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 or GEOL 102, and completion of all Mason Core science requirements.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 332: Paleoclimatology. 3 credits.
Explores the natural evolution of Earth's climate with the goal of providing a baseline for understanding present climate variability and future trends through increased knowledge of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that influence climate over the long-term. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 102 or BIOL 103 or EVPP 110.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 334: Vertebrate Paleontology. 4 credits.
Vertebrate Paleontology explores the evolution of vertebrates from the early Paleozoic to Recent. The course will cover the systematics, anatomy, paleogeography, and ecology of extinct vertebrates. Discussions will include fishes, early tetrapods & amniotes, dinosaurs, birds and mammals. Lab portion includes paleontology techniques, analysis, and study of fossil specimens and casts. A weekend field trip is included. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to BIOL 334.
Specialized Designation: Writing Intensive in the Major
Recommended Prerequisite: Any two courses from the following list: GEOL 101, GEOL 102, BIOL 103, BIOL 104, BIOL 213, BIOL 303 or the permission of the instructor.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 363: Coastal Morphology and Processes. 4 credits.
Studies global coastal geomorphology and processes with emphasis on U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Topics include plate tectonics, sea level changes, sediment supply, waves, tides, storm impacts, and human activities. Lecture and extended weekend field trips to mid-Atlantic coast. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to EVPP 363.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 309 or BIOL 309 or GEOL 317 or 9 credit hours in Geography including GGS 309.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 364: Marine Geology. 3 credits.
This course will present a global overview of the geologic origin and composition of the ocean seafloor, and an introduction to the basic principles of the geologic processes occurring in the marine environment. Primary topics include geologic, tectonic and sedimentary characteristics of the deep ocean basins and continental margins; transport and deposition of marine sediments; micropaleontology and paleoceanography; geochemistry and hydrothermal systems; and marine mineral resources. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101, GEOL 102, GEOL 302, and CHEM 211.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 392: Geology and Earth Science Seminar. 1 credit.
Undergraduate experience that includes discussion of scientific articles and attneding seminars presented by outside experts, faculty, or students. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 4 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: 30 credit hours.
Schedule Type: Seminar

400 Level Courses

GEOL 401: Structural Geology. 4 credits.
Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks in folded, faulted, and metamorphosed terrains. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 302, GEOL 317 (grade of C or better in both), and GEOL 304, or GEOL 308 (grade of C or better); MATH 110, MATH 111, or MATH 113. PHYS 160 or PHYS 243 is highly recommended.
Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 402: Geological Development of North America. 3 credits.
Geological history of North America in terms of plate tectonics. Geological development and history of North America's major regions. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101, 102, 302, 304, 308 and 401.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 403: Geochemistry. 3 credits.
Includes stable isotope, crystal, water, and organic geochemistry; geochronology; and geochemistry of rocks. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 and 102, and CHEM 211.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 404: Geological Field Techniques. 1-6 credits.
Mapping techniques involved in collecting geological field data. Notes: Includes field work. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 6 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101, 102, 302, 304, 308, and 401.
Schedule Type: Laboratory
GEOL 405: Advanced Seminar in Earth Resources. 3 credits.
Analyzes current issues involving renewable and non-renewable earth resources with consideration of the economic, political, social and aesthetic significance of these resources and their utilization. Taught seminar style examining case-studies, with emphasis on discussion, reading, writing and student oral presentations.Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 and 102 and GEOL 302, 304 and 308 OR GEOL 305, 320 and 321 and completion of Mason Core requirements.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 406: Seminar in Earth and Environmental Science. 3 credits.
Students read, discuss research literature; produce, present original papers. Notes: Capstone seminar for Earth and environmental science majors. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: 90 credits.
Schedule Type: Seminar
GEOL 408: Practicum for Geology Laboratories. 1 credit.
Studies techniques to make geology lab effective component in geological education. Discusses developing testing materials, supplemented by experience operating geology course lab section. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Corequisite: Open only to GEOL/ESS majors with 80 credit hours and permission of Chair.
Schedule Type: Internship
GEOL 409: Practicum for Geology Laboratories. 1 credit.
Studies techniques to make geology lab effective component in geological education. Discusses developing testing materials, supplemented by experience operating geology course lab section. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: Open only to GEOL/ESS majors with 80 credit hours and permission of Chair.
Schedule Type: Internship
GEOL 410: Research Proposal Preparation. 1 credit.
Prepares students for research in GEOL 411. Includes literature research, initial data collection, and preparing research proposal. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: Geology or Earth Science major with 90 credits, cumulative GPA of 2.80 or higher, and permission of the Geology undergraduate coordinator.
Schedule Type: Research
GEOL 411: Geological Research. 3 credits.
Geological research: data collection and reduction, interpretation, preparation of written report, and oral presentation of results. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 410.
Schedule Type: Research
GEOL 412: Physical Oceanography. 3 credits.
Course describes the global patterns of temperature, salinity, currents and waves in the world's oceans, and how these patterns influence marine biota, climate, and human activity. Course introduces key concepts which explain physical features of the ocean ranging from microscopic turbulence to global circulation. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to CLIM 412.
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 113 or MATH 115, and PHYS 160 or PHYS 243, or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 417: Geophysics. 3 credits.
Basic principles of geophysics including gravity, magnetism, and seismic reflection and refraction. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to PHYS 417.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101, MATH 113, one year of PHYS or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 420: Earth Science and Policy. 3 credits.
Discusses Earth science issues that have policy implications. Course uses a broad definition of Earth science, from atmosphere to geosphere. Taught seminar-style, with emphasis on discussion, reading, writing, critical analysis, and student oral presentations. Notes: Course may include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: 18 credit hours in major or minor (geology, Earth science, ocean and estuarine science, or global and environmental change), and one of the following social science based courses: EVPP 361; ECON 103; ANTH 114; GGS 103; GLOA 101; GOVT 132 or 133; HIST 125 or 130; or SOCI 101, 102, or 120.
Recommended Corequisite: All other required Mason Core courses.
Schedule Type: Seminar
GEOL 458: Chemical Oceanography. 3 credits.
The world's oceans, including a variety of closed basins and estuaries, comprise a complex and dynamic system of chemical processes that interact with biological, geological, physical, and atmospheric processes to play a significant role in defining the earth's fragile environment. This course will present an overview of the origin, occurrence, and distribution of the chemical components in sea water and an introduction to the basic principals of the chemical processes taking place in the marine environment. Designated a Green Leaf Course. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to CHEM 458.
Specialized Designation: Green Leaf Course
Recommended Prerequisite: CHEM 211 and CHEM 212, and CHEM 321 or GEOL 302.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 480: Internship. 1-3 credits.
Approved study programs with specific employers. Notes: Contact department one semester before enrollment. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Corequisite: Open only to authorized majors with 90 credit.
Schedule Type: Internship

500 Level Courses

GEOL 500: Selected Topics in Modern Geology. 1-3 credits.
Topic designated in class schedule. Notes: Lecture, lab, field trip. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree.
Recommended Prerequisite: Baccalaureate degree in geology, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 501: Selected Topics in Modern Geology. 1-3 credits.
Topic designated in class schedule. Lecture, lab, field trip. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree.
Recommended Prerequisite: Baccalaureate degree in geology or Permission of Instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 503: Special Topics in Earth Science. 1-6 credits.
In-service course to strengthen and update knowledge of Earth science. Notes: May include field trips. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree.
Recommended Prerequisite: Employment or anticipated employment as an Earth Science teacher.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 506: Soil Science. 3 credits.
Explores the composition, classification, physical properties, and origin of soils. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to EVPP 503.
Recommended Prerequisite: Previous lab-science courses in each of the following: geology and chemistry (8 credit hours); or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 513: Hydrogeology. 3 credits.
Geological and hydrologic factors controlling occurrence, distribution, movement, quality, and development of groundwater. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: Previous lab-science courses in each of the following: geology, calculus, and chemistry (12 credit hours); or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 521: Geology of Energy Resources. 3 credits.
Survey of global non-renewable and renewable energy resources. Topics include petroleum, natural gas, coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, and hydro power, and biofuels. Course discusses global production, usage, impacts and future prospects of these resources, and data capture, analysis and modeling of finite resources. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: GEOL 101 or GEOL 102, and completion of all Mason Core Natural Science requirements or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 525: Modeling Earth Signals and Systems. 3 credits.
Provides instruction on time series analysis customized for Earth signals and systems such as climate, Earth-space orientation, earthquakes, geomagnetism, river flow, tides and many other time­dependent phenomena. Concepts including linear systems, filtering, spectrum estimation, harmonic analysis and hypothesis testing are applied to time series data sampled from natural processes to address a variety of scientific problems. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 114 and STAT 250 or equivalent or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 532: Paleoclimatology. 3 credits.
Explores the natural evolution of Earth's climate with the goal of providing a baseline for understanding present climate variability and future trends through increase knowledge of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that influence climate over the long-term. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: Previous lab-science courses in geology and/or atmospheric science and/or oceanography (12 credit hours); or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 534: Vertebrate Paleontology. 4 credits.
Explores the evolution of vertebrates from the early Paleozoic to Recent. Covers systematics, anatomy, paleogeography, and ecology of extinct vertebrates. Discussions include fishes, early tetrapods and amniotes, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals. Lab portion includes paleontology techniques, analysis, and study of fossil specimens and casts.Notes: A weekend field trip is included. Students who have taken GEOL 334 as an undergraduate may not take 534 as a graduate student. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: Undergraduate degree in biology or geology or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Laboratory, Lecture
GEOL 535: Quantitative Stratigraphy. 3 credits.
Quantitative stratigraphy is a branch of geology that applies statistics to reconstruct the time sequence of geological events recorded in sedimentary strata. Methods of interpolation and error analysis used for defining stratigraphic boundaries and events, time scale estimation using integrated chronostratigraphy, and intercalibration are examined. Students receive advanced training in graphic correlation, constrained optimization, ranking and scaling, and dynamic programming. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: MATH 114 and STAT 250 or equivalent or permission of instructor.
Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 536: Paleontology Seminar. 1-2 credits.
Paleontology Seminar presents topical research in paleontology and paleobiology in a structured discussion among graduate students and paleontology faculty. A theme for the seminar is chosen each semester the course is offered, tailored to the interests of the students. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 12 credits.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Seminar
GEOL 553: Field Mapping Techniques. 3 credits.
Explores basic techniques for collecting, recording, and plotting spatial field data, including topographic maps, compass, transit, alidade, and global positioning systems. Field work and field based research project. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to EVPP 503.
Recommended Prerequisite: Previous courses in geometry or trigonometry or equivalent; and environmental science, geography, or geology or equivalent.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Laboratory
GEOL 563: Coastal Morphology and Processes. 4 credits.
Investigates global coastal geomorphology and processes, with emphasis on U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Topics include plate tectonics; sea-level changes; sediment supply; impacts of waves, tides, storms; and human activities. Lecture and extended weekend field trips to U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to EVPP 563.
Recommended Prerequisite: Previous courses in geology, oceanography marine science, earth science, or physical geography; or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture
GEOL 565: Paleoceanography. 3 credits.
Investigates ocean evolution through geologic time. Earth's sediment archive provides proxy data on paleo-ocean chemistry, biology, geology, and physical properties. Class examines proxy reconstructions of oceanic conditions such as circulation, salinity, stratification, anoxia, and biogeochemistry. Discusses the history of ocean basins, with case studies from Precambrian to Holocene. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit.
Recommended Prerequisite: Previous course in oceanography or marine science and 16 credits of geology or earth science courses, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture

600 Level Courses

GEOL 601: The Lithosphere. 3 credits.
Global-scale overview of lithosphere, solid non-living Earth, materials, cycles, plate tectonic and geomorphic processes; and history, including interactions with and history of hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, and methods of analysis. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May not be repeated for credit. Equivalent to GGS 657.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment limited to students with a class of Advanced to Candidacy, Graduate, Non Degree or Senior Plus.

Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Lecture

700 Level Courses

GEOL 700: Comprehensive Exam. 1 credit.
Preparation for and completion of written comprehensive exam within AOES department. The comprehensive exam is given as part of the degree requirements in lieu of writing a master's thesis. Instructor should be the chair of the examination committee. The exam committee will specify exam content. Notes: No more than 1 credit of GEOL 700 may be applied toward the master's degree. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 2 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: At least 15 graduate credits, approved project proposal, and permission of major advisor or chair of the examination committee.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Independent Study
GEOL 792: Seminar in Earth Systems Science, Geology, & Earth Science. 1 credit.
Capstone experience that includes discussion of scientific articles and attending seminars. Seminars presented by outside experts, faculty, and students. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 12 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: 15 Graduate Credits including GEOL 601 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Seminar
GEOL 798: Master's Research Project in Earth Systems Science. 1-6 credits.
Experimental, observational, literature-based, or theoretical research project chosen and completed under guidance of faculty member. Proposal required before enrollment. Comprehensive technical report acceptable to student's committee required for completion. Notes: No more than 6 credits of GEOL 798 may be applied to master's degree. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 12 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: 15 graduate credits, approved project or thesis proposal, and permission of instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Thesis
GEOL 799: Master's Thesis in Earth Systems Science. 1-6 credits.
Experimental, observational, or theoretical research under major advisor's supervision that culminates in production of thesis. Thesis work should be potentially publishable. Offered by Atmospheric/Oceanic/Earth Sci. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 18 credits.
Recommended Prerequisite: Approved thesis proposal by thesis committee, and permission of major advisor or instructor.
Registration Restrictions:

Enrollment is limited to Graduate or Non-Degree level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll.

Schedule Type: Thesis